Latin name for Austria

Austria is the Latin name for Austria. It originally referred only to modern-day Lower Austria, and later to the entire Habsburg dynasty, as well as to the Spanish version of the Austrian House, its ruling empire. It works as a translation of “Austria” in various languages ​​and is used as a brand name to create references to Austria.

The Austrian Allegory is a symbol of the Austrian state and is portrayed as a woman with a bright crown on her hair and a spear in her hand, leaning against a coat of arms.

Etymology and History

The name Austria was first mentioned in the Latin text of King Conrad III. Built on February 25, 1147, retained today in the Klosterneuburg Abbey biblical canon. It deals with goods delivered by the Austrie marchionibus, Marchiones Austriae. [1]

However, the word did not return to Latin, but to Proto-Germanic. Old High German * austar- means “east” or “east”, while the Old Icelandic Edda called a gnome in Eastern Australian mythology. Closely related to the name Austria are the names of Austrasia and Austrien of East Frankish and the Eastern Empire. The root ôstar- also appears in the old name Ostarrîchi. In Icelandic, Austria is known as Austurríki (pronounced with the first words “Ö”, [ˈøistʏrˈriːcɪ]). [2] It just so happens that the Latin oyster represents the “south wind” and the terra australis represents the “southern country” of Australia.

Since the Middle Ages, the Grand Duchy of Austria has been called Austria, and (arch) Austrian officials have been called (archi-) dux Austriae. The name domus Austriae, first recorded in 1326, has been used throughout the Austrian family since the 15th century, but its Spanish translation, the Casa de Austria, was less commonly used in the Spanish family of the Habsburg dynasty. Since the 18th century, Austria has been known as a national Austrian allegory in the field of visual arts.

In the name of the Republic on behalf of the company

The use of the Austrian name in the name of a company (company) or other entity is permitted only with the permission of the organization. Article 16 Z2 of the German Trade Code states that “Companies should not contain any information that could mislead important business relationships with their target audience.” This policy applies to the appendix of the name Austria, Austria – but also to the names of Austria, Austria and other regional authorities, eg Styria, Vienna – to translate them in such a way that “[is only allowed if it is a company of extra value or product with standard features. -Austrian or high quality “made. “It is the same with other groups and associations.

Austria

Austria is the Latinized name of Austria. It originally only referred to today’s Lower Austria, later the entire Habsburg monarchy and, in the Spanish form Casa de Austria, its ruling dynasty. It serves as a translation for “Austria” in various languages ​​and is also used as a brand term to create a reference to Austria.

The allegory of Austria, a symbol of the Austrian state, is represented as a female figure with a mural crown in her hair and a spear in her hand, leaning on a coat of arms.

word origin and history

The name Austria is mentioned for the first time in a document written in Latin by King Konrad III. dated February 25, 1147, which is kept today in the Klosterneuburg monastery of the Augustinian canons. It speaks of goods that were given away by the Austrie marchionibus, the Margraves of Austria (Marchiones Austriae).[1]

However, the name does not go back to the Latin, but to the proto-Germanic language. The Old High German *austar- means something like “to the east” or “in the east”, and the Old Icelandic Edda calls the mythical dwarf of the east Austri. Closely related to the word Austria are the names Austrasia and Austrien for the kingdom of East Francia and the East. The root ôstar- is also recognizable in the older name Ostarrîchi. In Icelandic, Austria is still called Austurríki (pronounced with an initial “Ö”, [ˈøistʏrˈriːcɪ]).[2] The resemblance to the Latin oyster for “south wind” and terra australis for the “southern country” of Australia is coincidental.

Since the Middle Ages, the archduchy of Austria has been known as Austria and the (arch) duke of Austria as (archi-) dux Austriae. Since the 15th century, the term domus Austriae, first documented in 1326, has been used for the entire House of Austria, but its Spanish translation Casa de Austria in the narrower sense only for the Spanish line of the Habsburgs. Austria has been known as the national allegory of Austria in the visual arts since the 18th century.

Carrying the name of the republic in company names

The use of the word Austria in company names (company) or other institutions is only permitted with federal approval. Section 16 Z2 of the German Commercial Code states “The company must not contain any information that is likely to mislead about business relationships that are essential for the target audience.” This principle was applied in relation to the name suffixes Austria, austro – but also Austria, Austrian and the names of other regional authorities, such as Styrian, Vienna – interpreted in such a way that they “[are] only permissible if it is a company of above-average importance or products of typically Austrian character or of significantly higher quality are manufactured.” The same applies to clubs and other associations.

Take Time to Notice the Little Things

I nonetheless get wildly passionate about little issues…
I play with leaves. I skip down the road and run in opposition to the wind.
My pal Judie has been watching a pair of nesting phoebes for a number of years. They construct their nest in essentially the most unbelievable area and have a tendency their chicks with effectively coordinated teamwork. Whereas driving alongside the expressway, Carol noticed a tiny fawn grazing alongside the median, seemingly oblivious of the place its mom was. Carol added it to her gratitude checklist for the day. Driving on a again highway, I seen a row of cornflowers and Queen Anne’s lace framing a cornfield in a refined blue and white border.
None of those are earthshaking spectacles. With out an eye fixed for the little issues, they’d all be simple to overlook. It appears a lot simpler for us to note all of the terrible things which bombard us every day and the troubles which comply with us round. If we permit it to occur, all of the terrible issues in life can overwhelm us. Typically issues which brighten our day take a particular effort to note.
Henry Thoreau wrote his memoir, Walden, within the nineteenth century. He described his apply of writing down the issues for which he was grateful every day earlier than getting off the bed. Oprah additionally urged Thoreau’s apply, described as a gratitude checklist, a method of protecting in contact with the nice issues in our every day lives. To be able to checklist issues for which we’re grateful, we should take note of them and savor them as they occur. Some days it appears simple to generate an extended checklist, and a few days our troubles appear to dam out the nice issues, making them more durable to recollect.
The little issues are often refined and, with out apply, simple to miss. Nonetheless, they’re throughout and ready for us to note them. The above examples are all from nature, however there are a lot of different delights as effectively. A form phrase, a loving gesture, or a small favor can all brighten our day if we allow them to.
The issues we discover and select to consider affect what sort of individual we’re and the way we current ourselves to the remainder of the world. If we continuously tune into tragedy, crime and battle, we’ll undoubtedly change into morose and unfavourable in regards to the world and ultimately about ourselves. If we make an effort to note the day’s little presents, we may have a brighter outlook on life regardless of our troubles.
Having a constructive outlook will be contagious. A younger lady I do know, Megan, is so persistently cheerful, even when issues usually are not going proper for her, it’s not possible to spend any time together with her and never come away feeling extra cheerful your self.
All of us have the selection of what to note and take into consideration. We are able to select to descend into the doldrums or search for the enjoyment in life. It would take some apply however we do have a alternative and may brighten our lives and the lives of these round us as effectively.
Life Lab Classes

  • Decelerate the tempo of your life for a short while.
  • Go searching you.
  • Discover one thing marvelous you didn’t see earlier than.
  • Hold this new discovery in your thoughts.
  • Return to it if you change into pissed off.

 

 
 

Difficult Situations

We’re all going through tough conditions with this Covid virus. Family members misplaced, isolation and loneliness, the worry and nervousness felt my so many. To not point out the troubles of the front-line employees, carers, nurses and all the opposite individuals placing their lives in danger for the good thing about others.
The concern of misplaced jobs and enterprise closures might be all-consuming for households going through hardship and the uncertainty of the approaching months. The federal government have made some provisions with their supporting monetary preparations however it won’t be adequate to assist all employees.
The damaged relationships spurred on by the excessive stress ranges, cash worries, companies collapsing, or the lack of the breadwinner by dying, as in addition to focusing on the aged and the Black and Asian communities, males appear extra affected than ladies.
The wedding steerage counsellors have been inundated with calls additionally the kid help-line. The quantity of violence inside houses has escalated past comprehension.
How can society be helped to repair itself? Individuals are suicidal, hurting, frightened not understanding the place to show for assist. The uncertainty is compounded by the actual fact there isn’t any certainty there won’t be additional spikes of the devastating virus. Some nations have eradicated the virus and it has struck once more.
In amongst all this desperation extra Black males in America have been killed by police. This injustice has struck a chord with societies all around the world leading to huge rallies in main cities in lots of nations,inflicting individuals to defy lockdown guidelines and social distancing. What’s going to this do to the unfold of the virus it is going to be per week or two earlier than we discover out?
We should maintain robust and endure shielding and social distancing for a little bit longer and discover peace in nature on our day by day walks. I’m fortunate I’ve a backyard I’m not caught in a high-rise flat with a number of youngsters.
What have I carried out to support myself by way of these tough occasions? I discovered a web based program from WHO AM I, it breaks down the steps to turning into resilient and completely happy over 10 weeks. It has helped me see the larger image, to get up, to recollect who I’m.
What attracted me have been the good testimonials I learn on the web site, a lot of what I used to be experiencing featured in these so I made a decision to provide it a go. I’m half method by way of and am feeling so significantly better; I’m not an affiliate for this program however maybe it is one thing that may provide help to too.
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Metabolism


Metabolism (from the Greek metabolisms, μεταβολισμός, which suggests “change”, alternate) is the set of transformations that chemical substances bear inside dwelling organisms. The time period mobile metabolism is used to check with the set of all chemical reactions that happen in cells. These reactions are liable for the processes of synthesis and degradation of vitamins within the cell and represent the idea of life, permitting the expansion and copy of cells, sustaining their buildings and adapting responses to their environments.
  The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into metabolic pathways, that are sequences of reactions by which the product of 1 response is used as a reactant within the subsequent response. Completely different enzymes catalyze totally different steps of metabolic pathways, appearing in live performance in order to not interrupt the circulate in these pathways. Enzymes are very important to metabolism as a result of they permit fascinating however thermodynamically unfavorable reactions to be carried out by coupling them to extra favorable reactions. Enzymes regulate metabolic pathways in response to modifications within the mobile atmosphere or indicators from different cells.
  Metabolism is often divided into two teams: anabolism and catabolism. Anabolic reactions, or synthesis reactions, are chemical reactions that produce new natural matter in dwelling issues. New compounds (extra complicated molecules) are synthesized from easy molecules (with power consumption within the type of ATP). Catabolic reactions, or decomposition/degradation reactions, are chemical reactions that produce giant quantities of power (ATP) from the decomposition or degradation of extra complicated molecules (natural matter). When catabolism exceeds anabolism in exercise, the physique loses mass, which occurs in intervals of fasting or sickness; but when anabolism overcomes catabolism, the organism grows or beneficial properties mass. If each processes are in steadiness, the organism is in dynamic equilibrium or homeostasis. Metabolism is essentially studied by Biochemistry, typically additionally utilizing strategies linked to Molecular Biology and Genetics.

Asparagus

Asparagus officinalis (asparagus (Brazilian Portuguese) or asparagus (European Portuguese)) is a plant in the class Liliopsida, order Asparagales, family Asparagaceae, genus Asparagus. The young shoots of this vegetable are highly prized, particularly in English, German and French cuisine. It has a delicate flavor, few calories and is particularly rich in folic acid, in addition to having diuretic properties.

Asparagus is a perennial plant. The sprouts are harvested in spring, from the second or third year onwards. White asparagus is grown by preventing the young shoots from getting light.

Asparagus can cause a characteristic odor in the urine of the person who consumes it, without any harmful consequences. The substances that cause odor do not originally exist in the plant: they are a result of the metabolism of one of its components, which contains sulfur. According to studies, 40% to 50%[1] of people produce these metabolites and their urine smells different, but interestingly, not all people can perceive the difference in odor: about 60% of people are insensitive to he. Of the 20 different types of amino acids found in proteins, the amino acid asparagine was the first to be found. And its name is due to asparagus, its original source where it was discovered.

History

There are records in history about lovers of delicacies based on asparagus,[2] such as the Roman Emperor Octavius ​​Augustus, the Roman gastronome Marcus Gavius ​​Apicius, the Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder (who called asparagus “the vegetable of God”), in antiquity. The prestige of asparagus dropped a lot during the Middle Ages, returning to be a popular dish during the Renaissance, and from then on it was much appreciated by personalities such as the Sun King, Louis XIV, or the German Chancellor Bismarck.

The Saint Petersburg Conservatory

The Saint Petersburg Conservatory (Санкт-Петербургская консерватория in Russian; Sankt-Peterbúrgskaya konservatoriya in transliteration) is a conservatory in Saint Petersburg. Its full name is St. Petersburg State Conservatory then called N.A. Rimsky-Korsakov (Sankt-Peterburgskaya государственная консерватория имени Н.А. Римского-Корсакова); Old names were Petrograd Conservatory (Петроградская консерватория) and Leningrad Conservatory (Ленинградская консерватория).

History

The conservatory was founded in 1862 by the pianist and composer Anton Rubinstein. The current building was built in the 1890s on the former site of the Bolshoi Kamenny Theater (ru:Большой театр (Санкт-Петербург)) and still retains a grand staircase and landing from that historic theatre. Rimsky-Korsakov joined the faculty in 1871, and the conservatory was named after him from 1944. As the center of the Russian school of composition (alongside the Moscow Conservatory, founded shortly thereafter), its graduates include such luminaries as Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky , Sergei Prokofiev, Dmitri Shostakovich and George Balanchine. During the 1960s, Shostakovich taught at the Conservatory: his students included German Okunev and Boris Tishchenko.

Fundamental center of Russian and European musical culture together with the Moscow Conservatory (founded a few years later by Nikolai Rubinstein), counts among its students and teachers some of the most distinguished personalities of Russian music of the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

In 2004, the conservatory had about 275 faculty members and 1,400 students.

In 2014, a documentary about the conservatory titled A Music Lesson was made by French director Marie-Ange Gorbanevsky.

Local SEO (Local Search Engine Optimization)

Native web optimization is outlined as that on-line advertising exercise that permits native companies to advertise their providers to native prospects at that precise cut-off date when they’re looking for your sort of enterprise. It’s mentioned that 4 out of 5 folks use the web on their smartphones for native info. To ensure that Google and different search engines like google to serve the customers with the related info from the huge quantity of information they’ve, native primarily based outcomes will change into increasingly more related and prevalent.

Listing listings are an essential function of native web optimization. They could possibly be area of interest or normal listings. They function on-line phone directories with NAP knowledge together with a map typically and your URL. Some permit images too. Some are free, some are paid; some for all times, some for eleven months solely, the choices are many. There are literally thousands of listing listings. It pays to be listed in not less than a number of of them. Yelp! Google My Enterprise are a few in style ones within the USA.

Native web optimization is a superb instrument for small companies as a result of there are solely so many opponents. The higher visibility you’ve gotten on a SERP, the extra seemingly that your goal will discover you! It is usually an effective way for search engines like google to serve probably the most related outcomes to the search engine person, offering areas too.

In a Google search, native search outcomes are served both within the new carousel format, which comes with a map, with an indented itemizing offering deal with phone numbers, opinions and so on.

Why is native web optimization changing into extra essential?

  • Native prospects are utilizing the web to search out native enterprise
  • Native search is gaining popularity with the passing years.
  • Native search is very focused and well timed
  • It offers higher outcomes than the standard promoting choices
  • Cellular utilization is very prevalent. Native web optimization covers each laptop computer in addition to cellular telephony
  • Biggest return on funding. No wasted publicity
  • In the event you declare your Google native itemizing, you can be method forward of competitors
  • Native web optimization remains to be free.Readership of Newspapers has declined by an enormous share – 40% to 80%
  • Buyer opinions that are very talked-about are an enormous a part of native web optimization.

How do you enhance your organization’s native web optimization?

  1. When creating your native web page, pay particular consideration to the way you categorize them in lots of subcategories supplied.
  2. Be certain your NAP (Title, Deal with and Cellphone quantity) is constant throughout the net, in your native pages, listing listings
  3. Use good high quality directories. Use class and placement searches to search out out if there is a chance to be listed someplace.
  4. Work to get extra opinions about your website. Critiques are showcased on SERP
  5. Add plenty of photos to your native itemizing to make it look fascinating. Be certain the important thing phrase seems typically.
  6. Attempt to earn inbound hyperlinks from bloggers, newspapers and thru social sharing, content material growth and so on.
  7. Rent a good native web optimization firm if you do not have sufficient time, as a result of that is an ongoing course of with the search engine modifications occurring on a regular basis.



Source

Las Vegas SEO

search engine marketing is the method that’s used to extend the rankings positions on engines like google of a web site. This course of manipulates the onsite content material in addition to the inbound hyperlinks to a web site, finally making a state of affairs the place engines like google think about that web site or webpage to be the most effective supply for data on that subject. Companies use search engine marketing to extend their publicity to potential shoppers and prospects, by having their web site be displayed favorably within the outcomes which are returned when somebody searches for the services or products they provide. Like all advertising and marketing technique, exposing your model to potential prospects will improve gross sales.

Search engine marketing is among the strongest types of advertising and marketing, attributable to the truth that it shows your model to prospects who’re looking actively to your services or products. Most types of advertising and marketing will show your model to a bunch, anticipating a few of the members of that group to have an curiosity in shopping for what you’re promoting. With search engine advertising and marketing, you’re displaying your model to people who find themselves actively searching for one thing you supply. This can be a much better buyer than a easy group that’s not outlined by a attribute or motivation. As a result of search engine marketing pushes your web site larger into the search outcomes which are displayed, extra potential prospects see the model. Most individuals who use engines like google for selections will select from the primary 5 outcomes which are displayed. This is the reason it’s crucial to your web site to be on the primary web page of outcomes.

Many enterprise house owners are pissed off by a scarcity of efficiency attributable to a vital mistake being made. If you don’t “localize” your web site and search engine marketing efforts, then you’ll be competing for positions towards a worldwide aggressive panorama. In case you are attempting to rank for the phrases “search engine marketing firm” your content material can be competing with firms that present this service everywhere in the world. If your organization is positioned in Las Vegas and serves primarily that Las Vegas viewers, then a localized search engine marketing marketing campaign concentrating on “Las Vegas search engine marketing firm” will scale back the competitors to solely firms concentrating on these phrases and areas. This makes your efforts more practical by competing in a smaller pool of outcomes. Efficient native search engine marketing makes use of specialised methods along with key phrase concentrating on to attain the objectives.

search engine marketing makes use of two primary strategies to attain larger rankings. Creation of content material that’s on a particular subject and positioned both on the web site or on one other web site linking again to your web site encompasses almost 100% of ongoing search engine marketing efforts. By creating new content material on a subject, you show to Google that you’re an authority on that subject, and finally will rank larger consequently. Whereas there are different components which are additionally used within the course of, these are a very powerful two.

search engine marketing is an ongoing course of, attributable to the truth that rankings are a contest between your web site and others. There isn’t a such factor as fastened placements, and you may all the time be bumped.



Source by Raymond Santopietro

SEO – What is SEO?

website positioning is without doubt one of the handiest issues you are able to do on-line, getting your web page optimized in such a approach that the major search engines will reward you by principally sending site visitors your approach. website positioning shouldn’t be actually that straightforward, however the backside line is, in case your web page is optimized each on web page and off, you typically get greater pure search engine rankings, which results in site visitors for you.

When you’ve hung out on-line just lately, you’ve got most likely learn the time period “website positioning,” or “Search Engine Optimization. However what does it imply, precisely? “website positioning” is a time period that’s used to explain the method by which site visitors to a selected website is more and more generated by search engines like google by the use of search outcomes. The standard of customer site visitors to a website may be measured by analyzing how typically a customer who makes use of a particular key phrase phrase in a search truly performs what is named a “conversion motion.” That’s, how typically these guests make a purchase order, obtain supplies, request data, or work together with the positioning in every other approach that signifies curiosity within the services or products the positioning provides.

Merely put, website positioning is advertising and marketing by means of an understanding of how search algorithms work mixed with a data of what human customers would possibly seek for. The tip objective is to create a website that accommodates phrases for which individuals will doubtless search when searching for data comparable to that contained in your website.

website positioning is an especially highly effective device on-line – use website positioning properly!



Source by Sean Mize

Непальская история

Старая история

Непал имеет долгую историю, насчитывающую тысячелетия. Кирати – одна из самых ранних известных непальских групп, датируемая примерно 563 годом до нашей эры. К. и император Ашока правили обширной империей, которая включала северную Индию и южный регион Тераи современного Непала в с. я. К 200 году буддийская империя была вытеснена возродившимися индуистскими вотчинами, такими как династия Личчави.

Примерно в 900 году династия Тхакури сменила эпоху Личчави, и в конечном итоге ее сменила династия Малла, правившая до 18 века. В 1768 г. король горкхов Притхви Нараян-шах захватил город Катманду, сделав его столицей своего нового королевства.В 1814 г. Непал был вовлечен в войну с Соединенным Королевством (представленным Британской индийской компанией).Восточный конфликт) известная как англо-непальская война, которая закончилась Сугаульским договором (1816 г.), по которому Непал уступил Сикким и южный Тераи в обмен на уход британцев. После того, как непальские гуркхи помогли британцам подавить мятеж сипаев в 1857 году, большая часть земель Тераи была возвращена им в знак благодарности.

Демократия и гражданская война

Королева Непала Рани в окружении фрейлин, 1920-е годы.
Правление династии Шахов было приостановлено в 1846 году, когда Юнг Бахадур Рана взял под свой контроль страну после убийства нескольких сотен принцев и вождей в резне в Катманду Кот (оружейный дворец). Рана (почти все махараджи Ламбджанга и Каски)9 правили как наследственные премьер-министры до 1948 года, когда британская колония обрела независимость. Индия предложила короля Трибхувана в качестве нового правителя Непала в 1951 году и спонсировала партию Непальского конгресса. Сын Трибхувана, король Махендра, прекратил демократический эксперимент и объявил «систему панчаятов» (диктатура без политических партий), при которой он будет править королевством. Его сын король Бирендра унаследовал трон в 1972 году и продолжал политику панчаятов до тех пор, пока Джана Андолан (Народное или Демократическое движение) 1989 года не вынудил монархию принять конституционные реформы.

В мае 1991 года в Непале прошли первые выборы почти за 50 лет. Партия Непальский конгресс и Коммунистическая партия Непала (объединенная марксистско-ленинская) получили наибольшее количество голосов. Однако ни одна из партий не смогла удержать власть более двух лет подряд. Критики утверждают, что правительственные реформы не улучшили заметно политический порядок, поскольку новое правительство также характеризовалось крайней коррупцией, граничащей с клептократией. В феврале 1996 года Коммунистическая партия Непала подняла вооруженное восстание, чтобы заменить режим маоистским коммунистическим государством. Этот конфликт продлится 10 лет, в течение которых погибнет более 12 700 человек. По данным Центра обслуживания неформального сектора, правительственные силы несут ответственность за 85% смертей среди гражданского населения.

По сообщениям некоторых правительственных чиновников Непала, 1 июня 2001 года наследный принц Дипендра, возвращаясь в свой дворец после ночной прогулки, убил своих родителей, короля Бирендру и королеву Айшварию, а также нескольких других членов королевской семьи. семья, продукт семейного спора. Несмотря на попытку самоубийства, Дипендра остался жив, и хотя он впал в кому, он был провозглашен королем на больничной койке и умер через три дня. После смерти эфемерного короля 4 июня 2001 года на престол взошел его дядя Гьянендра. Версия, общепринятая народом Непала, совсем иная: убийство всего ядра королевской семьи должно было быть спланировано тот, кто позже станет королем и осуществлен сыном этого.

Восстание захватило значительную часть Непала. Маоисты изгоняют представителей партий, близких к власти, экспроприируют местных капиталистов и реализуют собственные проекты развития. У них также есть собственные тюрьмы и суды. Помимо принудительных мер, партизаны усиливают свое присутствие благодаря своей популярности среди важных слоев непальского общества, особенно среди женщин, неприкасаемых и этнических меньшинств. Таким образом, ликвидируется кастовая дискриминация, женщины получают равные с мужчинами права наследования, запрещены браки по принуждению. Кроме того, маоисты предоставляют бесплатное медицинское обслуживание и курсы грамотности.

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Nepalese History

Old history

Nepal has a long history that has spanned millennia. The Kirati are one of the earliest known Nepalese groups, dating to approximately 563 BC. C. and Emperor Aśoka ruled over a vast empire that included northern India and the southern Terai region of present-day Nepal in the s. i a. By the year 200, the Buddhist empire was displaced by resurgent Hindu fiefdoms, such as the Licchavi Dynasty.

Around the year 900, the Thakuri dynasty succeeded the Licchavi era and was eventually succeeded by the Malla dynasty, which ruled until the 18th century. In 1768, the Gorkha king Prithvi Narayan Shah captured the city of Kathmandu, making it the capital of his new kingdom. In 1814 Nepal was involved in a war with the United Kingdom (represented by the British India Company). Orientales) in a conflict known as the Anglo-Nepalese War, which ended with the Treaty of Sugauli (1816), in which Nepal ceded Sikkim and the southern Terai, in exchange for British withdrawal. After the Nepalese Gurkhas helped the British put down the Sepoy mutiny in 1857, most of the Terai lands were returned to them as a sign of gratitude.

Democracy and civil war

Queen Rani of Nepal surrounded by her ladies-in-waiting, in the 1920s.
The Shah dynasty was suspended in 1846, when Jung Bahadur Rana took control of the country after murdering several hundred princes and chiefs in the Kathmandu Kot (armoury palace) massacre. The Rana (almost all Maharajas of Lambjang and Kaski)9 ruled as hereditary prime ministers until 1948, when the British colony achieved its independence. India proposed King Tribhuvan as the new ruler of Nepal in 1951 and sponsored the Nepali Congress Party. Tribhuvan’s son, King Mahendra, dissolved the democratic experiment and declared a “panchayat system” (dictatorship without political parties) under which he would rule the kingdom. His son King Birendra succeeded to the throne in 1972 and continued panchayat politics until the Jana Andolan (People’s Movement or Democratic Movement) of 1989 forced the monarchy to accept constitutional reforms.

In May 1991, Nepal held its first elections in almost 50 years. The Nepalese Congress Party and the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist) received the most votes. However, neither party was able to hold power for more than two consecutive years. Critics argue that the government reforms did not appreciably improve the political order, since the new government was also characterized by extreme corruption bordering on kleptocracy. In February 1996, the Communist Party of Nepal launched an armed insurrection to replace the regime with a Maoist-leaning communist state. This conflict would last for 10 years, during which more than 12,700 people would die. According to the Informal Sector Service Centre, government forces are responsible for 85% of civilian deaths.

According to the account of some government officials in Nepal, on June 1, 2001, Crown Prince Dipendra, returning to his palace after a night out, assassinated his parents, King Birendra and Queen Aishwarya, as well as others. several members of the royal family, product of a family dispute. Despite attempting suicide, Dipendra stayed alive, and although he fell into a coma, he was proclaimed king in hospital bed, dying three days later. After the death of the ephemeral king, his uncle Gyanendra acceded to the throne on June 4, 2001. The version commonly accepted by the people of Nepal is quite different: the assassination of the entire nucleus of the royal family would have been planned by the one who later would be the king and carried out by the son of this.

Significant portions of Nepal are being taken over by the rebellion. The Maoists expel the representatives of the parties close to power, expropriate the local capitalists and implement their own development projects. They also run their own prisons and courts. In addition to coercive measures, the guerrillas are strengthening their presence due to their popularity among important sectors of Nepalese society, particularly women, untouchables and ethnic minorities. Thus, caste discrimination is eliminated, women receive the same inheritance rights as men, and forced marriages are prohibited. In addition, the Maoists provide free health care and literacy classes.
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