Eating less beef and an extra-bright pulsar

Image of the Tarantula Nebula within the Large Magellanic Cloud by the The ASKAP radio telescope.

The brightest extra-galactic pulsar has been recognized within the Massive Magellanic Cloud (pictured).Credit score: Pennock et al.

A ‘galaxy’ is unmasked as a pulsar — the brightest outdoors the Milky Manner

Astronomers have confirmed that an object they thought was a distant galaxy is definitely the brightest extra-galactic pulsar ever seen. The workforce made the invention utilizing a way that blocks a selected sort of polarized mild, much like polarized sun shades, which might be used to spy extra ‘hidden’ pulsars.

Pulsars are extremely magnetized spinning neutron stars. As pulsars spin, they launch radio waves from their poles — and these could be detected as a ‘pulse’ utilizing radio telescopes. Astronomers use pulsars to check theories of gravity and to search for indicators of gravitational waves.

The brand new pulsar, known as PSR J0523−7125, is about 50,000 parsecs from Earth, within the Massive Magellanic Cloud, and is totally different from most recognized pulsars. Its pulse may be very broad and exceptionally ‘shiny’ on the radio spectrum, says Yuanming Wang, an astrophysicist at Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Analysis Organisation in Canberra.

Wang and the workforce say that the pulsar is ten occasions brighter than some other pulsar discovered outdoors the Milky Manner. Their research was revealed in The Astrophysical Journal on 2 Might (Y. Wang et al. Astrophys. J.; 2022).

Pulsars are usually recognized from their faint pulse, flickering periodically. However within the case of PSR J0523−7125, its pulse is so broad and shiny that it didn’t match the everyday profile of a pulsar and was dismissed as a galaxy.

Wang and the workforce first suspected that the item is likely to be a pulsar on the premise of information from the Variables and Sluggish Transients survey, carried out utilizing the Australian Sq. Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope in Western Australia. The survey appears to be like at a part of the sky for extremely variable radio-wave sources.

Emissions from pulsars are sometimes extremely polarized, and a few of them oscillate in a round method. Few house objects are polarized like this.

Utilizing a pc programme, the workforce blocked out wavelengths of sunshine that weren’t circularly polarized, revealing the pulsar.

“We should always anticipate finding extra pulsars utilizing this system. That is the primary time we now have been in a position to seek for a pulsar’s polarization in a scientific and routine method,” mentioned co-author, Tara Murphy, a radio astronomer on the College of Sydney in Australia, in a press launch.

Consuming one-fifth much less beef may halve deforestation

Changing simply 20% of world beef consumption with a meat substitute known as mycoprotein throughout the subsequent 30 years may halve deforestation and the carbon emissions related to it, finds a mathematical mannequin that took under consideration estimated will increase in inhabitants development, revenue and livestock demand between 2020 and 2050 (F. Humpenöder et al. Nature 605, 90–96; 2022).

The mannequin means that, beneath a business-as-usual situation, the worldwide improve in beef consumption would require the growth of pasture areas for grazing and of cropland for feed manufacturing, resulting in elevated deforestation, methane emissions and agricultural water use.

Changing 20% of the world’s per-capita beef consumption with mycoprotein by 2050 would scale back methane emissions by 11% and halve the annual deforestation and related emissions, in contrast with the business-as-usual situation (see ‘Meat substitution’). Swapping 50% of the meat consumed per particular person for mycoprotein would lead to a greater than 80% discount in deforestation and carbon emissions, and changing 80% of beef with mycoprotein would eradicate about 90% of forest loss.

Meat substitution: Line chart showing future environmental effects of replacing beef consumption with microbial protein.

Supply: Humpenöder, F. et al. Nature 605, 90–96 (2022).

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