Surface-to-space atmospheric waves from Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai eruption

The January 2022 Hunga Tonga–Hunga Haʻapai eruption was one of the explosive volcanic occasions of the trendy period1,2, producing a vertical plume which peaked > 50km above the Earth3. The preliminary explosion and subsequent plume triggered atmospheric waves which propagated world wide a number of occasions4. A worldwide-scale wave response of this magnitude from a single supply has not beforehand been noticed. Right here we present the small print of this response, utilizing a complete set of satellite tv for pc and ground-based observations to quantify it from floor to ionosphere. A broad spectrum of waves was triggered by the preliminary explosion, together with Lamb waves5,6 propagating at part speeds of 318.2±6 ms-1 at floor stage and between 308±5 to 319±4 ms-1 within the stratosphere, and gravity waves7 propagating at 238±3 to 269±3 ms-1 within the stratosphere. Gravity waves at sub-ionospheric heights haven’t beforehand been noticed propagating at this pace or over the entire Earth from a single supply8,9. Latent warmth launch from the plume remained essentially the most vital particular person gravity wave supply worldwide for >12 hours, producing round wavefronts seen throughout the Pacific basin in satellite tv for pc observations. A single supply dominating such a big area can also be distinctive within the observational report. The Hunga Tonga eruption represents a key pure experiment in how the environment responds to a sudden point-source-driven state change, which shall be of use for enhancing climate and local weather fashions.

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